Saturday, December 14, 2019
string(285) " and services and the audience already have some knowledge about the product and services so our little efforts can bring some good revenues for the company but in case of individual customers we have to be very conscious about the individual taste and preference to win their hearts\." Introduction E-Business is one of the most emerging buzz words in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business sector because it is designed to facilitate the individual and business community so that they remain in touch with their dealings record in 24/7 basis. There have been important progresses in the arrangement of the UK business service division in the past 30 years. As per the study of Devlin (1995), in anticipation of the near the beginning 1970s practical differentiation was principal with numerous supervisory body boundaries forced, one major outcome being limited rivalry both nationally and worldwide. We will write a custom essay sample on E-Business in Modern Business or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a consequence, there was serious dependence on usual division based liberation of business services and modest force for alteration. This transformation slowly with deregulation of the business and the progressively more significant position of information knowledge brought rigid opposition and force for speedy alterations. On the other hand, usually these near the beginning online business services were unsuccessful to obtain extensive receipt and were ceased. With fast enlargement of previous types of electronic services mostly on the Internet, in view of the fact that the mid 1990s banks have rehabilitated their attention in electronic form of liberation (Daniel, 1999) and underway offering for the most part business products such as present accounts, saving accounts and so forth by means of the Internet and skill facilitated channels which are cooperatively known as e-banking. The innovative information technology is flattering a significant issue in the prospect growth of bu siness services, and particularly numerous financial businesses. Banks are faced with a number of significant questions, for example how to get filled advantage of new skill opportunities, how e-developments alter the ways customers interrelate with the financial services supplier, etc. Selected Company: Barlcays In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive working scenario most of the businesses are trying to come out of the physical operations and switch their businesses to the virtual world so that they can make their presence possible on 24/7 basis enabling any customer to approach the company without any barrier and hassle free working operations. In case of the banking sector it is important to remain activated all the time so that customers from all the parts of the world can remain in touch with the bank without any problems and barriers. In order to accomplish this work I have selected the banking industry because E-business is very common and fast developing in this industry. Furthermore I have selected Barclays as the company to focus on its E-business operations like E-marketing and Customer relationship management that how Barclays managing its operations electronically in order to enhance the customer facilitation and employees growth to streamline its business process in order to get high returns and savings on its investments. Emerging Importance of Internet Banking in Barclays It is an established reality that Internet banking is turn out to be a middle field of learning by a lot of researchers in Ireland. Purposely, the new learning demeanour in Internet banking is completed by Guriting and Ndubisi (2006) who premeditated Borneo virtual and e-banking. Among the other UK internet banking studies are Ndubisi and Sinti (2006), Ndubisi et al. (2004), Suganthi and Balachandran (2001) and Shanmugam and Guru (2002), to talk about a only some. These studies exclusively proffer an exact sympathetic on Internet banking taking in the middle of Irish. On the other hand, it is incomplete for them to discover the undergraduateÃ¢â¬â¢ behavioural purpose over internet banking reception, previous studies were quiet to speak to particularly apprentice as their major objective of investigation (i.e. Karem, 2003; Ndubisi et al., 2004; and Sathye, 1999). Consequently, the present learning is calculated in command to learning undergraduate receiving of Internet banking. Barclays E-Banking in Current Scenario In this current scenario of rapid development and progress people find it really hard to go to the branch and perform their banking transactions and other deposits. When people became fed up with the entire branch banking facilities and other formalities then they started to think about something virtual banking facilities so that they can successfully eliminate all the barriers of the banking industry and they can work 24/7 from anywhere and everywhere. This thinking leads them to consider a E-banking option that is very successful nowadays (i.e. Karem, 2003; Ndubisi et al., 2004; and Sathye, 1999). E-Marketing and CRM in Barclays It is an undeniable fact that E-business has introduced numerous new and innovative means of performing business operations. Some of them are e-marketing and CRM. These two business process were previously done in physical world by using physical resources and equipments, but now due tot he rapid advancement in technology and electronic these two functions can be performed electronically and in the virtual world successfully. E-marketing in Barclays Internet marketing plan in Barclays include, how to begin an Internet business, online e-marketing, and e-marketing scheme, search engine optimization, and providing Internet advertising guru tips have been our centre for several years. Marketing is the sole of any organization, e- marketing strategy is a process that enables an organization to utilize its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in the market in which the organization deals. A marketing strategy key concept is that client contentment is the come primary. A marketing strategy is a process that enables an organization to utilize its available resources on the maximum opportunities to promote sales and achieve an appropriate advantage in the market in which the organization deals. KotlerÃ¢â¬â¢s describe that marketing is a concept applicable in all organizations not only for profit business corporationsÃ¢â¬ . (Kotler, 1982) Marketing to organisation and consumers In this contemporary marketing is become very vast field and people are doing specialisation in organisation and consumers both sectors to gain the maximum benefits out of the marketing. People say it is easy to market the products and services to the organisation rather than individual customers. Because at organisational level we have to give thorough presentation about the product and services and the audience already have some knowledge about the product and services so our little efforts can bring some good revenues for the company but in case of individual customers we have to be very conscious about the individual taste and preference to win their hearts. You read "E-Business in Modern Business" in category "Essay examples" Major Roles Media advertising Main media publicity was the action hardest hit by the financial plan cuts, considering the sharpest descending amendment in all groups. The cut to medium budgets was the third consecutive periodical descending amendment and was also the main seen for two years. Direct marketing On average in last year, direct marketing budgets were left unchanged. This quarter marked an end to the steady upward revisions which have been seen in the past seven quarters. The continued focus on direct marketing can be attributed to its perceived cost effectiveness and accountability CRM in Barclays With the emergence of E-busienss most of the business can successfully manage to entertain its customer on 24/7 basis by providing them services and products offerings through internet or any other virtual means. E-business has made it really easy for the customer to access the company to solve it issues measure and matters by remain connected with the company all the time devoid of boundary and any other barriers. Benefits of CRM Time saving factor Electronic banking has given new modes of performing business and dealings. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s proved to be a very productive and time saving for the business transactions. Now we do not have to wait for two to three days for cheque clearing within few minutes we can transfer our funds and we can also deposit our cash and attain financial statement within few clicks. These procedures have really made our business matters more convenient and fast and it also reduced time in our daily transactions. In fact some of the Banks in Ireland are offering mobile service as well due to which we can check our account transaction anytime and anywhere (Pekka Laukkanen, 2008, pp.440 Ã¢â¬â 455). Customer flexibility E-banking provides utmost flexibility to the customers and it can also provide equal facilities and flexibilities to the bank employees. Now they can make their posting to branch to branch transfers with the help of virtual network or we can also call it virtual private network that is VPN. These systems can really help the employees to build long term relationships with the customers and it can also enhance their credibility in their career. Along with this these internet facilities ensure 24/7 service availability of banking service without any tension or time boundary (Minna Mattila, 2003, pp.514 Ã¢â¬â 528). Security As youÃ¢â¬â¢d wait for from a reward winning online banking examination, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s totally no cooperation when it comes to safety. There are two separate areas of safety that relate to our online banking customers. The primary is our safety system to defend you when you use e-Banking. The moment involves the safety measures you should get to defend yourself when you go online. Use Cases in Aspect of Customers and Enterprise The below mentioned cases are the perfect example of e-business application in an online library and online shopping. It can really boost the business performance by adding huge profits and sales in business accounts and financial records. E-Library OPAC An Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) is e-Library website which is part of Integrated Library System (ILS), also known as a Library Management System (LMS), and managed by a library or group of libraries. Patrons of the library can search library catalog online to locate various resources Ã¢â¬â books, periodicals, audio and visual materials, or other items under control of the library. Patrons may reserve or renew item, provide feedback, and manage their account. Online Shopping Web Customer actor uses some web site to make purchases online. Top level use cases are View Items, Make Purchase and Client Register. View Items use case could be used by customer as top level use case if customer only wants to find and see some products. This use case could also be used as a part of Make Purchase use case. Client Register use case allows customer to register on the web site, for example to get some coupons or be invited to private sales. Note, that Checkout use case is included use case not available by itself Ã¢â¬â checkout is part of making purchase. Except for the Web Customer actor there are several other actors which will be described below with detailed use cases. Conclusion This paper has numerous actions and parameters that can measure the importance of E-business in banking sector scenario and it also gives real analysis about the domestic market that how customer will respond towards this banking facility and services. E-Business, the newest production of electronic banking transactions has released up novel window of occasion to the current banks and monetary institutions. Most of the banks have their own websites but not all of them proffer internet facilities. The major cause of this is that the banks do not have the IT infrastructure and good security description. To increase the self-assurance on internet banking the in general computer literacy must be urbanized. With that ambition management has taken scheme even in the root level to enlarge it literacy in the state. On the other hand, with banking customers growing more and more relaxing with the digital way of life, but BarclayÃ¢â¬â¢s customers are not intended in case of e-banking in Ireland. They are not flattering recognize the influence of knowledge and seek to influence it to get pleasure from better management over their banking operations. To bring to a close that e-banking may also give previous benefits. For example, making new markets, and plummeting functioning costs, managerial costs and labour force are more and more imperative aspects for the banksÃ¢â¬â¢ competitiveness, and e-banking may get better these aspects as well. So, UK banks should take these compensation of e-banking in UK as before time as likely. References Chen, T. (1999) Critical Success Factors for Various Strategies in the Banking Industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing. Vol. 17, No. 2, pp 83-91. Cronin, M. J. (1998) Defining Net Impact: The Realignment of Banking and Finance on the Web, in Cronin, M. J. (Ed.) Banking and Finance on the Internet. Chapter 1, John Wiley Sons, New York, USA, pp. 1-18. Daniel, E. (1999). Provision of electronic banking in the UK and Republic of Ireland. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17 (2), 72-82. Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P., Warshaw, P.R.(1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22 (14), 1111-1132. Franco, S. C., Klein, T. (1999) Online Banking Report, Piper Jaffray Equity Research, www.pjc.com/ec-ie01.asp?team=2 Guriting, P., Ndubisi N.O. (2006). Borneo online banking: Evaluating customer perceptions and behavioural intention. Management Research News, 29 (1/2), 6-15. Minna Mattila, Heikki Karjaluoto, Tapio Pento, (2003) Ã¢â¬Å"Internet banking adoption among mature customers: early majority or laggards?Ã¢â¬ , Journal of Services Marketing, Emerald Group Publishing Limited Vol. 17 Iss: 5, pp.514 Ã¢â¬â 528 How to cite E-Business in Modern Business, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Shortfalls And Weaknesses In Communication. Answer: This is a reflective essay which would help me in analysing my shortfalls and the weaknesses which I have particularly in my communication skills. Communication is deemed as the heart and soul of coordinating and sustaining the professional working life. It is the organising element in the organizational life. Due to this emphasis on communication skills, I would be doing the reflective essay over my communication skills. In order to evaluate my communication skills, I would be using five diagnostic tools which I came across while undertaking this course. The use of these diagnostic tools would be very helpful for me as it would help me improving in my business life, apart from a growth on my personal level. Once I identify the shortfalls by using these diagnostic tools, I would do review some literature in order to analyse the theories associated with my shortfalls and the possible solutions for it. And then I would draw an action plan which would be represented through Gantt chart which would depict the actions which I have to undertaken in the next six months, in order to improve upon the skills which I lack. The first step which I took in evaluating the communication skills which I have, I selected five diagnostic tools and took approval for the same from the tutor, so that I could use them for the purpose of this reflective essay. In this regard, I started with the SPCC, i.e., Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale which helps in measuring the communication apprehensions of a person. This tool evaluates the communication ability which an individual has, and is used, when faced with different state of affairs, with wide ranging audience (McCroskey McCroskey, 1998). Another communication apprehension tool which I used was PRICA, which stands for Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension. This tool helps a person in evaluating their feelings when they come across people from different cultural backgrounds and the apprehensions which an individual feels when they have to communicate with diverse background people (Neuliep McCroskey, 1997). The next tool which I used for the purpose of this essay was the NIS-S, which stands for Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Self Report. This tool helps in judging the immediacy of a person when they have to communicate with other particularly using the non verbal immediate behaviour and also shows the positivity of a person by using non verbal cues and gestures (Richmond, McCroskey Johnson, 2003). The fourth tool which I used for the purpose of this essay was Willingness to Listen Diagnostic which shows the orientation of an individual to listening to others (Richmond Hickson, 2001). And the final tool for the purpose of this study was the Talkaholic Scale which shows the magnitude of how much a person talks, and if they have to learn to control it. It denotes the level of talkativeness in an individual and highlights if a person is compulsive talker or not (McCroskey Richmond, 1995). As soon as I finished scoring myself on the questions asked on the five diagnostic tools, I started to evaluate my scores as per the standards and what each of my scores depicted, particularly with regards to my shortfalls. In this regard, I firstly went ahead and filled the SPCC and then calculated my final score in it, which stood at 41.67, rounding up to 42. This clearly highlights my biggest flaw of speaking in public and in groups as this score is on low side of SPCC. Breaking down the scores individually, I got 35 in public, 45 in meeting, 50 in group, 36.67 or 38 in dyad, got 18.75 or 19 in stranger, 37.5 or 38 in acquaintance and 68.75 or 68 in friend. Apart from friends group I scored on the low SPCC scores all around which shows how apprehensive I get when I have to talk to public, strangers or even acquaintances. So, most of the times, I do face difficulty in presenting my views before any group. The next tool which I used was PRICA and I knew I would score badly in this. I got a score of 30 in this, which shows that I tend to be uncomfortable when it comes to interactions with people of different cultural backgrounds. The third diagnostic tool I used got me a score of 97 which shows that I do use a lot of body language and non verbal cues to put forward my point. The next tool I used was Willingness to Listen Diagnostic where I got a score of 76 which should that I am always open to listen to others, which then helps me in learning new things. The last tool was the Talkaholic where I got 26 depicting that I am not a compulsive talker and I do not have the need to stop myself when it comes to talking too much. My two weaknesses relate to communication apprehensions, which relates to the first two tools, i.e., intercultural apprehensions and the public speaking apprehensions. There are numerous instances where I have faced these issues. Just 3-4 months back, we were asked to prepare a group presentation. I faced a difficulty in interacting with my group as I did not know the other people. However, matters escalated when we were asked to present this report before the class, speaking just 200 words on the experience. Naturally, I froze and stammered my 200 words, and also got very sweaty. Another similar incident took place when my father asked me to join the drama class, and I could not do so, as I did not know how to talk to others. My father thought this would be a good thing as it would help me open up to others. He still took me to the first class and the drama teacher did her best in making me comfortable about my apprehensions, but on the very second day, I ran out of the class and ga ve up. Communication apprehensions are identified in intercultural communications and in public speaking. The concept of communication apprehensions had been originated by James C. McCroskey and he worked up to develop an intercultural communication apprehension model, as was similar to that of emotions and thoughts in the communication apprehensions, however the one developed in this context was related to the linguistic barriers and barriers of culture (Neuliep, 2014). These could have its foundation in audience, situation, context or trait. Some scholars have shown that when faced with such circumstances, the anxiety was present only in specified situations like that of a job interview or a public speaking situation and the apprehension in such cases is based on apprehensions (Gumus, Hamarat Dursun, 2005). Other have highlighted that intercultural communication apprehensions were usually based on negative perceptions relating to the differences in cultures of two people and this display ed an uneasy behaviour when the individuals came in contact with another individual from a different culture, in other words, resulting from the imminent cross cultural interactions (Mak et al 2013). Intergroup anxiety was highlighted by Rahmani (2017) as a negative feeling, along with the feeling of restlessness when the individual has comes across when having to communicate with an individual who is not of their same cultural identity. And in his view, the intergroup anxiety portrayed negative results, which results in the cognitive performance of a person being hampered, in addition to the social interactions. There have been diversified contextual incompatibilities with regards to these communication apprehensions resulting from both cultural and non cultural elements. These communication apprehensions result from the differences in an individuals culture, for example, in the individuals belonging to Arabic nations, US, Australia, East Asian nations and Western Europe (Hackman Barthel-Hackman, 1993; Hsu, 2007; Pederson, Tkachuk Allen, 2008). And so, people belonging to individualist cultures usually put focus on their personal needs, activities and also their personal space . It had been noted by different scholars that in the high context cultures of Japan, China, Arabic nations and Korea, there was a difference from that of the low context cultures like that of US, which result in communication apprehensions (Merkin, 2009; Pederson et al. 2008; Pryor, Bulter Boehringer, 2005). It had also been stated that the majority of information in high context culture is shared amongst participants, where there is a shared communication perception depending upon the particular context of the communication. Though, it has been noticed in context of low culture that it covers more information and is straight forward (Hall, 1976). Hence, Pryor et al (2005) deemed that high context cultures are quite less valued and are quite apprehensive. And the oral communication highlights the culture context based on the communication traits (Allen, O'Mara Long, 2014). Jaffe (2015) believed that public speaking was a major issue which was faced by almost every person on earth, particularly when they have to speak before a big group of strangers. When it comes to public speaking, it is deemed as the most difficult aspect for nearly every segment of public, and particularly for the college students, when presented with the opportunity of addressing their class. When faced with public speaking, the people often have difficulty in making difference between sounds and at times, are unable to understand simple words (Horwitz, Horwitz Cope, 1991). Other set of scholars have also held this view and provide that communication skills are deemed as a big factor in both the college and work life of a person (Dunbar, Brooks Miller, 2006). There has been an emotional predisposition when it comes to anxiety which stems from public speaking (Beatty, 1998; Beatt, Balfantz Kuwabara, 1989). In the views of Woodrow (2006), the anxiety which stems from public speaking can be bifurcated in two parts. The first one is the psychological reactions, where the body of a person reacts, and could show signs of sweating, stammering, heart beating very fast, and the like. With regards to the second reaction, it was of cognitive reactions, where the brain starts thinking irrelevant and negative thoughts, which depreciates a person and just contributes towards the high anxiety levels. The different reactions which stem from public speaking anxiousness have also been highlighted by North and Rivers (2001). In their view, the individuals starting showing signs of discomfort, muscle tension, gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating and palpitation. Rossi and Seiler (1986) analysed the history of this anxiety and stated that the study on public speaking anxiety was traced back to the middle of 1930s. Burnley, Cross Spanos (1993) noticed that, at that time period, around 85% of the individuals faced this anxiety. As per Scovel (1991), there was a need to properly channel anxiety for it to be advantageous for the person himself, and if this is left to increase and escalate, the person of an individual plummets. Hence, even in the literature, it has been shown that public speaking lead to people being uneasy and apprehensive as they felt threatened (North Rivers, 2001). The need to facilitate anxiety has been aptly identified by Jones (2004), where he has stated that there is a need for the anxious person to take lessons from their apprehensions and also work upon them by learning from the previous obstacle faced by them. When this is done, the anxiety can be effectively channelled. Ohatam (2005) also drew up similar conclusion and stated that by facilitating anxiety, the individual can better learn about their attitude and also can change their perceptions. Hence, there was a need to enhance the public speaking skills by removing such apprehensions so that the person can have a successful personal and business life (Marinho, Medeiros, Gama Teixeira, 2017). Similar need was identified by Russ (2012) where he stated that communication skills were an important part of the individuals interpersonal working relationships. Hence, the literature clearly shows that communication apprehensions are faced by individuals most commonly when faced with public s peaking and also when they have to deal with people of different cultural identities. As the literature shows that this is a common problem being faced by people, particularly of college people, I would try to adopt the suggestions which have been given in the literature, i.e., to face my fears. And so, I have created an action plan which I would follow for the next six months. In this, the first step, as suggested in the tutorial itself, I would start maintaining a daily journal where I would put in my thoughts and my experiences for each day. This journal would map my journey of six months and would not only show my highlights, but also the aspects where I faced some or the other difficulty. I would be attending an intercultural fest which is being organized in March 2018 in our local community to promote multicultural Australia. I would take support of my mentor, i.e., my tutor in the first three months, on the possible things which can help me in improving my apprehensions and also would invite their suggestions on what else I need to do to improve on my intercultural apprehensions. Even though this would be a difficult task for me, but in Jan and Feb. 2018, I would be addressing in different classes on my journey and the problems which I face in communicating in public. To help me in this matter, I would prepare cue cards so that I can at least read these out as a start. Next, I would read a lot of literature, particularly around the holiday period, and interact with others during this very period to apply the suggestions of literature in real life. Our university has a range of students from different cultural backgrounds and so, for every alternative month, I would interact with people from different backgrounds. As I am apprehensive about culture, I would visit the religious places and try to understand their perspective towards life. This, as per my dad, would greatly help me in feeling comfortable with the people of different cultural backgrounds. And my dad also reminded me to join the Drama classes again, which I would do for three month period from Jan to March 2018, so that I could learn to open up to others. The success parameter for me would be the feedback from (a) my tutor, (b) university students, and (c) my dad, as he knows my troubles and understands my apprehensions. This has further been elucidated through a Gantt chart, particularly for the timeline of each activity. Gantt Chart depicting Action Plan Nov-17 Dec-17 Jan-18 Feb-18 Mar-18 Apr-17 Daily Journal Attending Cultural Fest Support from Mentor Presenting before Class Reading Literature Communicating with University Students Visiting religious places Joining Drama Class Thus, this activity has been very beneficial for me as it has helped me in putting into perspective, my communication apprehensions. Hopefully, by following the action plan, I would be able to succeed in my endeavours. References Allen, M. Bourhis, J. (1996). The relationship of communication apprehension to communication behavior: A meta-analysis.Communication Quarterly, 44,214-226. Beatty, M. J., Balfantz, G. L., Kuwabara, A. Y. (1989). Trait-like qualities of selected variables assumed to be transient causes of performance state anxiety. Communication Education, 38, 277-289. Beatty, M.J., Friedland, M. H. (1990). Public speaking state anxiety as a function of selected situational and predispositional variables. Communication Education, 39, 142-147. Burnley, M., Cross, P., Spanos, N. (1993). The effects of stress inoculation training and skills training on the treatment of speech anxiety. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 12, 355-366. Dunbar, N., Brooks, C. Kubica-Miller, T. (2006). Oral Communication Skills in Higher Education: Using a Performance-Based Evaluation Rubric to Assess Communication Skills. Innovative Higher Education, 31(2). Gumus, M., Hamarat, B., Dursun, M. (2005). Intercultural communication apprehension: An empirical study on ANZAC people. Journal of Administrative Sciences, 3(1), 179-193. Hackman, M. Z., Barthel-Hackman, T. A. (1993). Communication apprehension, willingness to communicate, and sense of humor: United States and New Zealand perspectives.Communication Quarterly,41, 282-291. Hall, E. T. (1976).Beyond culture. New York, NY: Doubleday. Horwitz, E. K., M. B. Horwitz and J. A. Cope (1991). "Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety" in E. K. Horwitz and D. J. Young, Language Anxiety, 27-39. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hsu, C.-F (2007). A cross-cultural comparison of communication orientations between Americans and Taiwanese.Communication Quarterly,55, 359 374. Jaffe, C. (2015). Public Speaking: Concepts and Skills for a Diverse Society (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Jones J.F. (2004). A Cultural Context for Language Anxiety. EA (English Australia), 21(2), 30-39 Mak, A. S., Brown, P. M., Wadey, D. (2013). Contact and attitude toward international students in Australia: Intergroup anxiety and intercultural communication emotions as mediators. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 491. Marinho, A. C. F, Mesquita de Medeiros, A., Gama A. C. C, Teixeira, L. C. (2017). Fear of public speaking: perception of college students and correlates. Journal of Voice, 31(1), 127.e7127.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2015.12.012 McCroskey, J. C., McCroskey, L. L. (1988). Self-report as an approach to measuring communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 5, 108-11. McCroskey, J.C., Richmond, V.P .(1995). Correlates of compulsive communication: Quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Communication Quarterly, 43, 39-52. Merkin, R. S. (2009). Cross-Cultural differences in approach-avoidance communication in South Korea and the US.Human Communication,12, 199-213. Neuliep, J. W. (2014). Intercultural communication: A Contextual Approach (6th ed.). Sage Publications. Neuliep, J. W., McCroskey, J. C. (1997). The development of intercultural and interethnic communication apprehension scales. Communication Research Reports, 14, 385-398. North, M., Rives, J. (2001). Virtual reality therapy in aid of public speaking. International Journal of Virtual Reality, 3, 2-7. Ohata K. (2005). Language Anxiety From the Teachers Perspective: Interviews With Seven Experienced ESL/EFL Teachers. Journal of Language and Learning, 3(1), 133-155 Pederson, J., Tkachuk, H., Allen, M. (2008). How perceived situational frequency and situational importance affect communication apprehension: A cross cultural analysis.Journal of Intercultural Communication Research,37, 189198. Pryor, B., Bulter, J., Boehringer, K. (2005). Communication apprehension and cultural context: A comparison of communication apprehension in Japanese and American students.North American Journal of Psychology,7, 247-252. Rahmani, D. (2017). Apprehension and Anxiety in Communication. DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.414 Richmond, V. P., Hickson, M. III. (2001). Going public: A practical guide to public talk. Boston, MA: Allyn Bacon. Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., Johnson, A. D. (2003). Development of the nonverbal immediacy scale (NIS): Measures of self- and other-perceived nonverbal immediacy. Communication Quarterly, 51, 502-515. Rossi, A., Seiler, W. (1989). The comparative effectiveness of systematic desensitization and an integrative approach in treating public speaking anxiety: a literature review and a preliminary investigation. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 49-66. Russ, T. L. (2013). The Influence of Communication Apprehension on Superiors' Propensity for and Practice of Participative Decision Making. Communication Quarterly, 61(3), 335- 348. doi: 10.1080/01463373.2013.776989 Scovel, T. (1991). "The Effect of Affect on Foreign Language Learning: A Review of the Anxiety Research" in E. K. Horwitz and D. J. Young, Language Anxiety, 101-108. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Woodrow, L. (2006). Anxiety and speaking English as a second language. RELC Journal, 37(3), 308-328.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Biased Language Definition and Examples The term biased language refers toÃ wordsÃ andÃ phrasesÃ that are considered prejudiced, offensive, and hurtful. Biased language includes expressions that demean or exclude people because of age, sex, race, ethnicity, social class, or physical or mental traits.Ã Bias in language refers to language that is uneven or unbalanced or not a fair representation, says the University of Massachusetts Lowell, adding that you should strive to avoid bias in writing and speaking because such language may contain Ã¢â¬Å"hidden messagesÃ¢â¬ about the superiority or inferiority of various groups or types of people. Examples of Biased Language BiasÃ is prejudice toward or unfair characterization of the members of a particular group, says Stacie Heaps writing onÃ WriteExpress: Bias is so common in speech and writing that we often are not even aware of it. But it is the responsibility of everyone to become conscious of and write without bias. Heaps gives several examples of bias together with alternative (and unbiased) phrasing: Biased Language Alternatives If he is elected, he would be the first person of color in the White House. lf he is elected, he would be the first African-American in the White House. He has had the physical handicap since he was 5 years old. He has had the physical impairment since he was 5 years old. There are many elderly people in our town. There are many senior citizens (or seniors) in our town. Be sensitive to the feelings of the opposite sex, minorities, and special interest groups saysÃ Cengage: Dont emphasize differences by separating society into we andÃ they by singling out minorities, particular genders, or groups of people such as those with disabilities and senior citizens. How to Avoid Bias in Your Writing Purdue OWLÃ provides some examples of biased language with alternatives you could use to avoid gender bias: Biased Writing Alternatives mankind humanity, people, human beings manÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements human achievements manmade synthetic, manufactured, machine-made the common man the average person, ordinary people man the stockroom staff the stockroom nine manhours nine staff-hours You have to be on guard against bias because it can so easily creep into your writing or speaking, but Cengage says its easy to avoid, as in this example: Before a surgeon can operate,Ã heÃ must know every relevant detail or the patients history. Remove the bias with just a simple adjustment: Before operating,Ã aÃ surgeonÃ must know every relevant detail of the patients history. You can just as easily avoid bias in race. Dont say: Attending the meetings were three doctors and an Asian computer programmer. In the example, AsianÃ is preferred toÃ Oriental, but why even single out this persons ethnicity? The sentence did not specify the ethnicity of the doctors, who were presumably Caucasian. Examples and Observations Be on guard for these types of bias in writing and speaking: Age:Ã Avoid derogatory or condescending terms associated with age. Little old lady can be rephrased as aÃ woman in her 80s, while an immature adolescent is better described as a teenager or teen.Politics:Ã In any election campaign, words referring to politics are full of connotations. Consider, for instance, how the word liberal has been used with positive or negative connotations in various election campaigns. Take care with words and phrases like radical, left-wing, and right-wing. Consider how your readers are expected to interpret these biased words.Religion:Ã Some older encyclopedia editions referred to devout Catholics and fanatical Muslims. Newer editions refer to both Catholics and Muslims as devout, thus eliminating biased language.Ã Health and abilities:Ã Avoid phrases like confined to a wheelchair and victim (of a disease), so as not to focus on differences and disability. Instead, write or say someone who uses a wheelchair and a person withÃ (a disease). Biased language can defeat your purpose by damaging your credibility, say GeraldÃ J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu in their Handbook of Technical Writing. They add: The easiest way to avoid bias is simply not to mention differences among people unless the differences are relevant to the discussion. Keep current with accepted usage and, if you are unsure of the appropriateness of the expression or the tone of a passage, have several colleagues review the material and give you their assessments. As you write and speak, remember that biased language insults the person or group to which it is applied, sayÃ Robert DiYanni and Pat C. Hoy II in their book, The Scribner Handbook for Writers. When you use biased language- even inadvertently- you denigrate others, creating division and separation, they say. So, strive to use unbiased language, and you will show that as a speaker or writer, you are including all potential members of your audience without segregating and referring pejoratively to a select few.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Reglas para el ingreso de mascotas a Estados Unidos El ingreso de mascotas est sujeto a reglas que hay que seguir. Tener en cuenta que aquÃ se explican las que afectan a las aduanas estadounidenses pero que hay que respetar tambiÃ ©n las del otro paÃ s del que se viaja o que es destino final. Lo primero que hay que saber es que las reglas aplican tanto a las personas que residen habitualmente en Estados Unidos y regresan al paÃ s con su mascota como a los que viven en otros paÃ ses e ingresan a los Estados Unidos por la razÃ ³n que sea. Los segundo, es que las mascotas deben de estar sanas. Y si no lo estn pueden ser sometidas a cuarentena. Y que en casos especÃ ficos simplemente se prohibir su ingreso. Y lo tercero es que hay reglas especÃ ficas segÃ ºn el tipo de la mascota. Asimismo,Ã si se considera que est en peligro aplicarn reglas especiales. A continuaciÃ ³n los casos ms comunes de reglas para mascotas y hacia el final la normativa que regula el ingreso de las piezas de caza en Estados Unidos. Se acaba con un listado de los puertos de entrada al paÃ s para el caso de caza y mascotas especiales. Reglas para ingreso de roedores a Estados Unidos Conejos, conejillos de indias, hamsters y hurones que son mascotas pueden ingresar a Estados Unidos si tienen buena salud. Si no la tuvieran, sern sometidos a cuarentena y el dueÃ ±o deber correr con los gastos. Los erizos sÃ ³lo se pueden traer a travÃ ©s de determinados puertos de entrada, que incluye aeropuertos. Consultar con la CBP. En todo caso, no se pueden ingresar los que proceden de Nueva Zelanda.Ã En cuanto a ratas, puerco espÃ n, ratones, ardillas y lirones, estn prohibidos sÃ ³lo si proceden de Africa.Ã Reglas para ingresar con perros a Estados Unidos Deben tener un certificado de vacuna contra la rabia si proceden de un paÃ s en las que existe tal enfermedad. Adems, se requiere uno de que est libre de gusano barrenador (screwworm en inglÃ ©s), si procede de un paÃ s en el que existe dicha enfermedad. Finalmente, si se trata de un perro guÃ a y se ingresa a los Estados Unidos en aviÃ ³n deber consultarse con la aerolÃ nea del vuelo, por si piden documentaciÃ ³n adicional.Ã Reglas para viajar con gatos a Estados Unidos No se requiere la presentaciÃ ³n de la vacuna contra la rabia en el caso de animales que son mascotas.Ã Reglas para ingresar a mascotas como monos y dems primates No pueden ser traÃ dos a Estados Unidos como mascotas en ninguna circunstancia. No se admiten excepciones. Ingreso a Estados Unidos de tortugas como mascotas Las tortugas vivas con caparazÃ ³n y que miden ms de 4 pulgadas y que se ingresan como mascotas pueden ser importadas sin restricciones. Pero siempre a travÃ ©s de un puerto de entrada que se ocupa de tramitar la papelerÃ a para animales salvajes (ver ms abajo). Las tortugas vivas con caparazÃ ³n y menos de 4 pulgadas pueden ser importadas sin fines comerciales, pero con un mximo de 7 ejemplares. Lo mismo sucede con los huevos viables de tortuga. TambiÃ ©n deben de ingresar a travÃ ©s de un puerto de entrada que procesa animales salvajes.Ã Peces Si no estn incluidos en listas de animales en peligro de extinciÃ ³n ni en listados de especies daÃ ±inas (injurios species) entonces pueden ser importados como mascotas. Es necesario utilizar para ello uno de los puertos de ingreso designados para tramitar la entrada de pecesÃ al paÃ s Reglas que aplican a la caza para ingresar a Estados Unidos Las reglas para ingresar a los Estados Unidos aves y otros animales abatidos por cazadores son como siguen: En primer lugar, si se trata de un pjaro o de otro animal no considerado como protegido y que ha sido cazado por un un ciudadano estadounidense o por un residente permanente legal en Canad o en MÃ ©xico y el fin de la importaciÃ ³n es no comercial: se puede producir el ingreso en cualquier puerto de entrada (aeropuerto, puerto o frontera terrestre). Pero es necesario llenar la planilla Form 3-177. En segundo lugar, si la pieza cazada procede de otro paÃ s entonces el ingreso se debe realizar a travÃ ©s de un puerto designado para tramitar esa documentaciÃ ³n. Adems, deber presentarse papeles mostrando la licencia del cazador, sellos y el documento de exportaciÃ ³n del paÃ s en el que se haya cazado al animal, si dicho paÃ s lo requiere. Finalmente, tener en cuenta que para no pagar impuestos de importaciÃ ³n es preciso que la pieza haya sido legalmente cazada por el que la trae, es decir, no puede ser comprada. Asimismo, es necesario ser ciudadano o residente permanente de los Estados Unidos.Ã Aves migratorias, animales protegidos o considerados amenazas Si se ha cazado un ave migratoria o se desea importar un animal o mamÃ feros marinos o cualquier otro animal considerado protegido o amenazante para las especies de los Estados Unidos, consultar antes con el Servicio de Peces y Fauna, porque podrÃ a estar prohibido traer la pieza a los Estados Unidos. El telÃ ©fono al que marcar es el 1-800-358-2104. AhÃ se puede obtenre informaciÃ ³n sobre quÃ © documentaciÃ ³n adicional se podrÃ a necesitar o si, simplemente, no es posible traer un determinado animal a los Estados Unidos.Ã AtenciÃ ³n a los ingresos de marfil El paso de marfil por las Aduanas de los Estados Unidos est sujeta a restricciones, incluso cuando forma parte de instrumentos o muebles. Puerto de entrada para procesar la papelerÃ a de Peces y Fauna El Servicio de Peces y Fauna (Fish and Wildlife en inglÃ ©s) est presente en los siguientes puertos de entrada: AtlantaBaltimoreBostonChicagoDallas / Fort WorthHonoluluLos AngelesÃ MiamiNueva OrleansNueva YorkNewarkPorlandSan FranciscoÃ Seattle A tener en cuenta para pasar control migratorio y aduanero fcilmente Para evitar tener problemas en las aduanas, esto es un compendio de todo lo que no se puede ingresar o est sujeto a algÃ ºn tipo de restricciones, desde alimentos a medicamentos.Ã Adems del control migratorio, al llegar a un puerto de entrada a Estados Unidos se pasa por un control migratorio. Esto es lo que saben los oficiales fronterizos. Finalmente, cabe destacar que si el ingreso se realiza a travÃ ©s de uno de los puestos de control migratorio en la frontera entre MÃ ©xico y EE.UU. las demoras pueden ser largas, particularmente en fechas seÃ ±aladas. Para evitarlo o estar preparado es posible consultar cunto tiempo se est tardando en cruzar en cualquier puesto en particular. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
FEX_HUM310 - Essay Example It is very democratic because having a book about how to become important levels the playing field. This article was important because at the time, everybody thought a Catholic president would basically just do whatever the Pope said without thinking of America first. However, Smiths article argues that this belief was completely against Americas constitution, which allowed for both freedom of religion and the separation of church and state. It influenced American values by drawing peoples attention again to the basic rights set out by the constitution with regards to religious rights. On the Road, like other books and poems published during the Beat Generation, was a book that really called into question the traditional values of America. It represented a big shift in the way people thought about things, and was very liberal or even radical. Once people accepted it America began to accept more liberal ideas. The Feminine Mystique is an important book because it drew attention to the way American women were still mostly a subservient gender. They were unhappy, but because for them to be happy might call into question traditional values about what women were supposed to do in the home, not many people wanted to know about their unhappiness at first. Friedans book brought this problem to the national attention. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote the letter in response to criticism of his protests in Birmingham Alabama. He claimed that unjust laws should be disobeyed because of morals. It is a significant document because it suggests that America was not as good at giving everybody an equal, democratic chance as it wished to believe. It also sets forth an alternative way for the oppressed people like African-Americans to change their country for the better. Bellow was controversial because of his conservative social and political views. He made statements and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
I have a dream--situational analysis - Essay Example This was the most famous speech he ever made which almost immortalized him. Dr. King, even to this day, remains an icon of anti racist movement. The rhetoric "I have a dream" became part of all the freedom movements to come and his words "Let freedom ring" reverberated from all corners of the world, as a sanctified slogan of freedom loving humankind. The rhetorical situation had many constraints at the time. Even though it was John Kennedy, one of the most exalted Presidents of America, the sworn enemy of racism, Kennedy had realized that it would take years to remove the evil from its roots. He was a new President, still testing the water of American politics and was not yet ready for a civil war like situation with the racial frenzy South. Things had not changed much from the days of Abe Lincoln. President Kennedy had to send federal troops to admit James Meredith to the University of Mississippi, in 1962, the very thing he really wanted to avoid. The President also had to order the marshals to accompany Meredith while attending his University Classes. King knew that in Kennedy he had a sympathizer and now it is known that Kennedy had already decided to do a lot for the rights of the black population, during his second term as President. But in 1963, even Kennedy was not in a position to do much to aid King. King knew that he had to fight his own battles, possibly with subtle help from the President and his Attorney General brother, Robert Kennedy. King's first task was generating support from the Black Community. There were a few fractions fighting for the civil liberty in an unorganized way. He knew that their strength lies in unity and undivided, fractionless black community. He knew that unless he did that, the movement had no chance of success. He also knew that President Kennedy's assassination in 1963 and the aspiring Presidential candidate, Robert Kennedy's murder in 1967, had removed any hope of administrative support for the movement, and the mild, rather wily successor, Lyndon Johnson never showed any such intention either by word or deed. King had to depend on his own rhetoric, wit, oratory and determination to make a success of the fight for civil liberties. This entire speech, its timing, location was towards that one particular goal. He had to enthuse and inspire them ('Let freedom ring'), explain and get them committed ('We cannot turn back'), and make them march with him towards the glittering goal of 'Free at last!' His eloquent speech was interrupted many times by the admiring frenzy of the audience that is the result of great purpose and happiness of having found a suitably inspiring leader at last for the cause. The rhetoric produced both short term and long-term effects. For the first time in recent decades black community of America was maintaining a united struggle for their
Monday, November 18, 2019
Methods of Property Valuation - Term Paper Example The process of estimating values of properties considers numerous elements that might affect the property value. These factors form an essential part of comparable valuing. In determining proper comparable various conditions must be satisfied to ensure the comparable remains closely related to the subject property. The subject property valuation utilizes the value of comparable to determine the estimated property values. Within the property market, various elements affect the selection of a comparable for the subject property. The current market conditions might increase or decrease prices of property depending on the accounting systems employed. According to Rees and Hayward (2001) when selecting a comparable location and physical appearance of the property must display significant similarities. The locations of property might influence the value of the property if the properties under question could both be influenced by location characteristics. The conditions under which comparab les are sold could potentially affect the suitability of a property as a comparable. A property sold understate settlement, for example, might be undervalued following the conditions involved. A proper comparable should be sold under prevailing market conditions and without restrictions on either party. Numerous methods of property valuation exist within the property market. The sales comparison approach remains the most utilized valuation method involving comparables (Betts & Ely, 1998). This method involves a comparison of different units forming the characteristics of the properties under comparison. This consideration of different units creates a beginning point for establishing an estimated value for subject properties. The significant characteristics that could be considered include floor area, property condition, age, and distance from essential amenities, among other property attributes. Though these elements might be considered in the valuation of property, the method relie s heavily on the economic principles of demand and supply.Ã